LEARNING TO LOOK


A format for looking at and talking about photographs

Describe the photograph briefly in a sentence or two. Looking carefully at the photograph, discuss the four categories described here. As objectively as you can, address the properties in each category that seem important for the photograph. Note: This exercise works best when comments and responses relate to something seen within the work. It is not necessary to discuss every visual element.

Visual Elements within the photograph--What You See

light and shadow

Does the light seem to be natural or artificial? Harsh or soft? What direction is the light coming from?Describe the shadows. Are they subtle or do they create strong contrasts?
value
Is there a range of tones from light to dark? Squint your eyes. Where is the darkest value? The lightest?
focus
What parts of the image are clearly in focus? Are some parts out of focus? Note: The range between the nearest and farthest things that appear in focus define the photograph's depth of field.
space
Do overlapping objects create a sense of space? Is the space shallow, deep, or both?
shape
Do you see geometric or organic shapes? Are there positive shapes, such as objects, or negative shapes that represent voids?
line
Are there thick, thin, curvy, jagged, or straight lines?
scale
Does the scale or size of objects appear to be natural?
color
What colors do you see, if any?
texture
Do you see visual textures within the photograph? Is there an actual texture on the surface of the photograph?
Alexander Alland: Untitled

Alexander Alland: Untitled, 1948
Gelatin silver print
Collection Center for Creative Photography
The University of Arizona
© Estate of Alexander Alland
 

Design of the photograph--How Things Are Arranged

angle

From what vantage point was the photograph taken? Imagine the photograph taken from a higher or lower angle or view. How does the angle affect the photograph?
framing
Describe the edges of the view. What is included? What does the framing draw your attention to in the photograph? Can you imagine what might have been visible beyond the edges of the picture?
dominance
Close your eyes. When you open them and look at the photograph, what is the first thing you notice? Why is your attention drawn there? Are there other centers of interest? How are they created? How do the focal points help move your eye throughout the photograph?
contrast
Are their strong visual contrasts--lights and darks, textures, solids and voids, etc.?
repetition
Repetition of visual elements can create unity--a sense of order or wholeness that holds the work together visually. What elements are repeated? Do they contribute to a sense of unity?
variety
Variety often creates interest. Can you see a variety of visual elements such as values, shapes, textures, etc.?
balance
Is the visual weight on one side of the photograph about the same as the other? How about top to bottom and diagonally.
How the photograph was made--Method/Equipment Used What the photograph communicates--Feelings/Mood


http://www.creativephotography.org    This page last updated July 28, 1999.   oncenter@ccp.library.arizona.edu


| Contents | Angle, Framing, and Light  | Learning to Look | Alexander Alland | Robert Frank | John Gutmann | Otto Hagel and Hansel Mieth | Lisette Model | Marion Palfi | Glossary | Acknowledgements | CCP Home |
Center for Creative Photography · The University of Arizona · Tucson, Arizona 85721-0103 · Phone: 520-621-7968